The Constitution of India is one of the finest-crafted Constitutions in the World. This Constitution is made by the Constituent Assembly under the Cabinet mission plan. This Constituent Assembly started its work from 26 November 1946. That’s why every year we celebrate Constitution Day on 26 November. It took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days to complete our Constitution. B.R. Ambedkar was the head of the most important committee which was the drafting committee of the Constitution of India. He drafted the entire Constitution. This Constitution was enforced from 26 January 1950. That’s why we celebrate republic day every year on this day.
- Lengthiest written Constitution in the World
The Constitution of India is the lengthiest written Constitution in the World. It is because not only the essential rights are given under it but detailed administrative instructions are also given under it. Our constitution has given the place to various organizations like Civil services (under Article 308- 323). One of the other reasons why this Constitution is so huge is because there is a single Constitution for entire India. India is a huge country and it needed detailed rules to be applied to various parts of the States. Due to this a massive constitution is made.
- Universal Adult Franchise
Our Constitution makers gave the right to vote to every citizen of India who was above 21 (now age is 18). The western democracy took many years while giving this right to everyone.
- Single Citizenship
Indian Constitution is having the provision of Single Citizenship. This means that anyone who takes the citizenship of some other country will automatically lose the citizenship of India. This concept of Citizenship is taken from the British Constitution. There are various benefits which citizens can enjoy by simply being a citizen. Right to vote, get elected to posts like President, Member of Parliament are all only available for the citizens of India.
- Free Judiciary
The Judiciary is free to give decisions and is not dependent on the government in India. An independent Judiciary is very much needed in a democracy. It protects its citizens from the arbitrary acts of the governments. There are various Fundamental rights which are given under the Constitution. The Judiciary has to enforce these fundamental rights using its power under article 32 and article 13.
- Quasi Federal Constitution
Quasi federal means it seems to be federal but it is not completely federal as it is having some serious tilt towards the central government. In the times of emergency, the Central government is having much more powers than the State Governments.
- Parliamentary form of Government
This form of governance is adopted from the British Constitution. India adopted it because she was experienced in following this form of government. This is often called a Westminster form of government. In this type of government, the executive is responsible and answerable to the legislature through various methods and forms.
- A mixture of Rigidity and Flexibility
Under the constitution, it is seen that there are many provisions which can be amended by a simple majority in the Parliament. On the same time, there are various provisions under Article 368 which needs a special majority, especially the matters which are affecting the policies of the State government.
- Directive Principles of State Policy
These are some principles which are given under Article 36 to 51. These principles are providing a guideline to the State to create policies which are essential for the Welfare of the People. Although these principles are not justifiable in the Court then also the State has created various laws due to which some of these principles are Constitutional rights now. The biggest example of this is Right to Education under the Article 21 A. Before this was a part of Directive principle but now there is a law made and added in Fundamental Rights to make it justiciable right.
- Fundamental Duties
These duties were not part of the original Constitution but later there was a need felt for these duties. Taking inspiration from USSR the government of India added 11 Fundamental Duties under Article 51 A in the Constitution. They were added as part of the 42nd Constitutional amendment in the year 1976. There was a need felt by the State that the citizens of India must follow these principles to show respect to our Nation.