The Foundation is the main supporting component of any building structure. It is the lowest part of the building which is in contact with soil and transfers all structural load to soil safely. Without a foundation, you may not see skyscrapers building in the world. There are different Types of Foundations used in construction depending upon the nature of the work.
Types of Foundation In Building Construction
Following are type of foundation used in building construction,
Isolated Spread Footing
It is one of the simplest and worldwide popular foundations. An isolated footing is mostly used to support a single column. This type of foundation is suitable when columns are not closely spaced.
- Stepped footing
- Simple spread footing.
- Sloped footing.
This type of footings is provided with steps in foundation sides, which is also known as polestar. The step or polestar is starting from the bottom up to column size. Stepped footings are generally used when there is a heavy load coming from the upper superstructure.
Simple Spread Footing
In simple spread footing, only a foundation base is constructed and further followed by a column. This type of footings is suitable when there is no excessive heavy load coming from the upper part of the structure as in the case of stepped footings.
In this type of footing, there is a foundation base and further followed by a column. But the slope is given to connect the base to column size and which is also resembles the shape of trapezoidal. It is also known as trapezoidal slope footing.
Wall footings are pad or spread and strip footings that are used to support structural or nonstructural walls to transmit and distribute the loads to the soil. All footing runs along the direction of the wall. The thickness and size of the footing are specified based on the type of soil at the site. The width of footing is generally kept between 2-3 times the widths of the wall.
In this foundation, the wall footing can be constructed from plain concrete, or reinforced concrete stone, brick. The wall footing is best suited for small buildings.
Combined footings are provided when the column is closely spaced. So that their footing overlaps with each other and when the soil bearing capacity of a soil is lower this type of footing are used. In such when columns are closely spaced and if we provide separate isolated footings would overlap, in such case, it is better to provide a combined footing than isolated footing.
Pile foundation is a type of deep foundation which is used to transfer heavy loads from the structure to a hard rock strata much deep below the ground level.
Drilled Shafts or Caisson Foundation
Drilled shafts, also called as caissons, is a type of deep foundation and has an action similar to pile foundations discussed above, but are high capacity cast-in-situ foundations. It resists loads from structure through shaft resistance, toe resistance and/or combination of both of these. The construction of drilled shafts or caissons are done using an auger.