Wall is a structural element that divides the space (room) into two spaces (rooms) and also provides safety and shelter. Generally, the walls are differentiated into two types outer walls and inner walls. Outer walls give an enclosure to the house for shelter and inner walls help to partition the enclosure into the required number of rooms. Inner walls are also called as Partition walls or Interior Walls and Outer walls are also called as Exterior walls.
Different Types of Walls
1. Load Bearing Wall
It carries loads imposed on it from beams and slabs above including its own weight and transfer it to the foundation. These walls support structural members such as beams, slabs and walls on above floors above. It can be an exterior wall or interior wall. It braces from the roof to the floor.
2. Non-load Bearing wall or Drop Wall:
This non-load-bearing wall does not support the ground or roof load above them which implies it does not bear any of the construction load. The most effective examples are partition walls inside the building, where they are constructed to divide rooms and these walls should not be with their structural integrity.
3. Shear wall:
Shear wall is the wall which is constructed around the lift pit, Water sump or Staircase to retain the soil. Any shear wall bears two pressures on it either it may be wind pressure and soil pressure or wind pressure or water pressure . Shear wall is adopted to resist these forces. These walls are used to carry the lateral force exerted on the structure due to wind, earthquake or any other lateral load.
4. Retaining Wall:
The wall that is constructed to maintain an uneven level of the floor on its two faces known as a retaining wall. The wall that is built around the plot below the floor to retain soil at one end and land sliding after the earthwork on site are known as retaining wall.
5. Brick masonry wall:
The wall which is constructed with bricks is called as brick wall. The thickness of brick wall could be 10cm or 20cm. 10cm wall is called as Single brick wall or partition wall.
6. Core wall:
The core wall is constructed from the foundation and it raised upto the height of the building. In this type of wall, the wall itself acts as a column. The core wall is built to carry the lateral force exerted on the structure due to wind, earthquake or any other lateral load.
7. Panel Wall
Panel wall is generally made of wood and is an exterior non-load-bearing wall in framed construction. It is used for the aesthetics of the buildings both inside and outside. It remains totally supported at each storey but subjected to lateral loads.
8. Partition Wall
The partition wall is an interior non-load bearing wall to divide the larger space into smaller spaces. The heights of a partition wall depend on the use which may be one story or part of one story. These walls are made up of glass, fiberboards or brick masonry.