Rainwater harvesting is the simple process or technology used to conserve Rainwater by collecting, storing, conveying and purifying of Rainwater that runs off from rooftops, parks, roads, open grounds, etc. for later use. A more appropriate definition of rainwater harvesting might be the collection of rainwater from a surface that allows for the rainwater to be stored and used at a later time. In a typical rainwater harvesting situation, rainwater is collected from an impervious surface such as the roof of a building and then stored inside of a tank or cistern. Rainwater can be collected from other surfaces as well. Other surfaces include parking lots, roadways, driveways, and even land surfaces.

Rainwater Harvesting System Components

  1. Collection surface or catchment area
  2. Conveyance system
  3. Storage volume
  4. Distribution system

In each of these parts, there are a variety of methods, materials, and technical issues that can allow the system to be individualized for the particular site

Advantages of Rainwater Harvesting

  • Less cost.
  • Helps in reducing the water bill.
  • Decreases the demand for water.
  • Reduces the need for imported water.
  • Promotes both water and energy conservation.
  • Improves the quality and quantity of groundwater.
  • Does not require a filtration system for landscape irrigation.
  • This technology is relatively simple, easy to install and operate.
  • It reduces soil erosion, stormwater runoff, flooding, and pollution of surface water with fertilizers, pesticides, metals and other sediments.
  • It is an excellent source of water for landscape irrigation with no chemicals and dissolved salts and free from all minerals.

Disadvantages of Rainwater Harvesting

  • Regular Maintenance is required.
  • Requires some technical skills for installation.
  • Limited and no rainfall can limit the supply of Rainwater.
  • If not installed correctly, it may attract mosquitoes and other waterborne diseases.
  • One of the significant drawbacks of the rainwater harvesting system is storage limits.
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