Climatology is the scientific study of climate. Climatology in architecture is a study related to the climate and the built environment. Buildings do not exist in isolation; they exist in a specific geographic environment. As a scientific discipline, architecture strives to ensure the harmony and unity of architecture and the surrounding geographic environment. If this is not possible, the building will not produce maximum comfort for the user, thus it will not achieve its purpose
India has a wide variety of climates. It can be roughly divided into five climate zones. The climate in India classified for different types of buildings is helpful to the functional design of buildings. Our country is divided into different regions, so the climatic difference from one region can be reflected in the Indian style house design, which justifies some special regulations for each region. The significant differences in climate data between these regions define unique thermal comfort requirements for buildings located in different areas.
Hot and Dry
The hot and dry climate is characterized by the average monthly maximum temperature exceeding 30 ºC. The areas in this climatic zone in India are usually flat and the soil conditions are sandy or rocky. In this climate, it is imperative to control the movement of solar radiation and hot wind. Therefore, building design standards should provide adequate shade, reduce exposed area and increase heat capacity.
Warm and Humid
The warm and humid climate is characterized by high relative humidity, around 70-90%, and high rainfall, around 1200 mm per year. The temperature in summer usually oscillates between 25 and 35 ºC, in winter the temperature varies between 20 and 30 °C. The design of houses in India in this climate should aim to reduce heat gain by providing shade and promote heat loss by maximizing cross ventilation. It is also necessary to dissipate moisture to reduce discomfort.
Temperate climates are characterized by temperatures that are neither too hot nor too cold. Total annual precipitation usually exceeds 1000 mm. Winter in this area is very dry. The design of houses in India in this climate requires reducing heat gain by providing shade and promote heat loss through ventilation.
Areas located in cold climates are at high altitudes. The temperature in summer oscillates between 20 -30 ºC, in winter it can oscillate between 3 ºC and 8 ºC, which makes it very cold. Cold weather requires the design of houses in India to have adequate insulation and penetration to resist heat loss and promote heat absorption by directly absorbing and capturing solar radiation in the living space.
Except for the fact that the composite area experiences higher humidity levels during the monsoon, most of the characteristics of the composite area are similar to those of the hot-dry climatic zone in India. Standards of design of houses in India standards are roughly the same as those for hot, dry weather (adequate shade, reduced exposure area, and increased heat capacity), except for the need to maximize cross ventilation during the monsoon.
The wind is air in motion. It is because of horizontal variations in air pressure. The greater the difference in air pressure amongst any places at equal altitudes, the stronger the wind will be. The triumphing wind is the wind direction most often determined for the duration of a given period. Wind tempo is the charge at which the air moves past a table sure object. The wind is the important factor of air float in houses. The pressure of many of the building envelopes and the outdoor environment differ, and that is why air float is possible.