Monetary Policy:-

Central banks typically have used monetary policy to either stimulate an economy or to check its growth. By incentivizing individuals and businesses to borrow and spend, the monetary policy aims to spur economic activity. Conversely, by restricting spending and incentivizing savings, monetary policy can act as a brake on inflation and other issues associated with an overheated economy.

The Federal Reserve, also known as the “Fed,” frequently has used three different policy tools to influence the economy: open market operations, changing reserve requirements for banks and setting the discount rate. Open market operations are carried out on a daily basis when the Fed buys and sells U.S. government bonds to either inject money into the economy or pull money out of circulation. By setting the reserve ratio, or the percentage of deposits that banks are required to keep in reserve, the Fed directly influences the amount of money created when banks make loans. The Fed also can target changes in the discount rate (the interest rate it charges on loans it makes to financial institutions), which is intended to impact short-term interest rates across the entire economy.

Monetary policy is more of a blunt tool in terms of expanding and contracting the money supply to influence inflation and growth and it has less impact on the real economy. For example, the Fed was aggressive during the Great Depression. Its actions prevented deflation and economic collapse but did not generate significant economic growth to reverse the lost output and jobs.

Fiscal Policy:-

Generally speaking, the aim of most government fiscal policies is to target the total level of spending, the total composition of spending, or both in an economy. The two most widely used means of affecting fiscal policy are changes in government spending policies or in government tax policies.

If a government believes there is not enough business activity in an economy, it can increase the amount of money it spends, often referred to as stimulus spending. If there are not enough tax receipts to pay for the spending increases, governments borrow money by issuing debt securities such as government bonds and, in the process, accumulate debt. This is referred to as deficit spending.

When a government spends money or changes tax policy, it must choose where to spend or what to tax. In doing so, government fiscal policy can target specific communities, industries, investments, or commodities to either favor or discourage production—sometimes, its actions are based on considerations that are not entirely economic. For this reason, fiscal policy often is hotly debated among economists and political observers.

In comparing the two, fiscal policy generally has a greater impact on consumers than monetary policy, as it can lead to increased employment and income.

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